Designing a Training Program
Effective coaching must be holistic, individualized and iterative. It involves:
Three pieces of information are needed:
A long-term, periodization plan.
Carmichael puts emphasis on psychology early and loosens up the structure as peak approaches.
Building period of longer than three days often gives diminishing returns and serious problems for recovery/adaption.
An alternate system might have two days of building, followed by a single day of recovery in alternating blocks.
The 100% number is an estimate and other volumes are set by working back from this estimate. In any case, avoid increase of more than 10% from one microcycle to the next.
Total Training Stress
Total training stress is a combination of all loading factors. The ratio of volume to intensity must build progressively throughout the mesocycle.
Adaptation occurs only during recovery.
Total training stress is greatest in the preparation period. It should decline as competition begins.
Psychological demands and pressures must be considered as part of the total training stress.
Training must create the same demands as racing.
Training volume over LT is critical but destructive if overdone. It must be monitored closely with a heartrate monitor or other means.
Unresolved psychological issues will be magnified during the peaking period.
Most of the critical training will have been done before entering peaking phase.
The variables include.
It can be measured by how fast the rider goes, how much power is produced, or HR. These objective measures are important but subjective measures -- how the athlete feels -- are key in spotting overtraining.
Volume is the amount of training performed in a specific workout or certain period of time. It can be measured in hours or miles; hours are generally more accurate but it's best to keep track of both.
Are longer rides better? That depends on intensity of the ride and the goals of the training period.
Frequency and Repetition
Frequency is how often a workout is performed. Repetition is the number of exercises in a particular workout.
Frequency of workouts is reduced as the athlete gets closer to a specific goal.
Repetitions must be considered as part of the training load.
Different terrains stress the muscles in different ways. HR intensity must take terrain into consideration. HR will be higher at a given intensity on hillier terrain.
Cadence and Technique
Special rules in riding, such as not allowing oneself out of the saddle or maintaining a certain cadence, can also contribute to overload. In early season training for some of his athletes, Carmichael does not allow them to ride out of the saddle on hills.
Pedalling at a high cadence is a learned neuromuscular skill. Different cadences will affect training intensity. High cadence puts additional stress on the aerobic system. Individual riders respond differently to different pedalling speeds.
Generally the more steady state the event, the lower the proper cadence. Also, the higher the power output, the higher the proper cadence. The longer the cranks, the slower the cadence.
Notes hosted by Century-SBCG.